Lesbian feminists consider same-sex relationships legitimate and use their lesbian identity as a basis for community building and collective action. Before the s, thriving gay and lesbian communities developed across the United States, especially in urban areas, where they often centred on bars or private homes. Many of those communities functioned underground as a means of protection from pervasive hostility, physical violence, social ostracism, harassment, and loss of employment. Because lesbians were operating within a culture that viewed homosexuality as a form of mental disorder and a threat to the well-being of American society, their social, legal, and economic concerns—like those of their male counterparts—were believed better kept private. Slowly that idea began to be challenged.
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Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most influential in the s and early s that. A widely studied example of lesbian-bisexual conflict within that while many feminists are comfortable working alongside gay men, bisexual rights movement, contains pieces concerning feminism.
Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most influential in the s and early s primarily in North America and Western Europe , that encourages women to direct their energies toward other women rather than men, and often advocates lesbianism as the logical result of feminism. Lesbian feminism came together in the early s out of dissatisfaction with second-wave feminism and the gay liberation movement. In the words of lesbian feminist Sheila Jeffreys , "Lesbian feminism emerged as a result of two developments:
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In addition, the chapter focuses on changes in collective identities adopted by women in the LGBT movement, sometimes emphasizing commonalities across the lines of sex and sexual identity and sometimes emphasizing difference. Her award-winning work includes Sapphistries: Her prize-winning research includes with Leila Rupp Survival in the Doldrums: Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase.